¿Cuáles son los grandes cambios de la industria marítima en estas décadas?

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Desde finales del siglo XX el comercio internacional ha crecido a un ritmo sustancialmente mayor que el producto interno bruto mundial. Ese crecimiento ha sido impulsado por la reducción de las barreras arancelarias, la internacionalización de la producción y la disminución de los costos de transporte. Con una cuota cercana al 90 por ciento del comercio global, el traslado de mercancías por vía marítima es el preferido para acceder a los mercados externos.

En este contexto, los puertos se han convertido en nodos clave para la interconexión y en gestores especializados de un volumen de carga en aumento. Datos recientes del Reporte del Transporte Marítimo 2018, de la Conferencia de Comercio y Desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas, muestran que en 2017 dicho volumen había casi duplicado al del año 2000.

Estas tendencias están acompañadas por importantes cambios en esta industria, especialmente en el sector de los contenedores. Buscando una mayor eficiencia y rentabilidad, el tamaño de los buques se ha incrementado, de hecho, los más grandes hoy superan los 20.000 TEU, frente a los 14.000 TEU de 2010. Y, como producto de la rápida consolidación horizontal –diez empresas poseen el 70 por ciento de la capacidad disponible–, el número de rutas y la frecuencia de los servicios han disminuido.

La integración también ha sido vertical, con un incremento de la presencia de compañías navieras no solo en la gestión de terminales, sino también en la prestación de servicios logísticos domésticos. Todo ello ha derivado en una mayor competencia entre puertos para captar tráfico marítimo (con cierta desventaja para aquellos que no poseen participación de la industria), incluyendo importantes inversiones en infraestructura.

En la región, las estrategias hub-and-spoke utilizadas por las compañías navieras a nivel mundial (de esta manera los puertos más grandes y con más relevancia concentran la mayor cantidad de carga),unidas a la expansión del Canal de Panamá, han alentado nuevas inversiones en las zonas portuarias del Caribe como nodos de trasbordo en las rutas más relevantes Este-Oeste y, en menor medida, Norte-Sur.

El Reporte de Competitividad Global del Foro Económico Mundial indica que la capacidad y la productividad portuaria han venido mejorando.Mientras en 2009 el país ocupaba el puesto 107 en calidad portuaria, entre 133 naciones, según el ranking del Foro Económico Mundial; en 2018 Colombia mejoró y llegó al lugar 77. 

El caso de Cartagena es ejemplar. Como resultado de las inversiones en infraestructura y equipamiento, así como las mejoras en la gestión portuaria, se ha convertido en el segundo puerto más importante del Caribe, por detrás de Colón en Panamá, que es un hub clave de trasbordo regional, con 2,5 millones de contenedores movilizados en 2017 y conexiones a 750 puertos en 150 países. La conectividad internacional, unida al desarrollo de servicios logísticos para los usuarios del puerto cartagenero, lo han convertido en integrador de Colombia al mercado global.

Los avances tecnológicos auguran un futuro promisorio para la gestión portuaria. Experiencias como las de Hamburgo, en Alemania, y Róterdam, en Holanda, evidencian que la transmisión de información en tiempo real entre los múltiples actores del sector puede generar beneficios sin precedentes en reducción de costos, incremento de productividad en activos escasos y disminución de congestión en zonas urbanas.

Así mismo, muestran que la transformación ya está en curso y que, en el actual contexto de creciente competencia internacional, urge que los puertos y sus comunidades (sectores público y privado) reformulen sus estrategias de colaboración y competitividad. Dentro de muy poco tiempo, el grado de ‘inteligencia’ de una zona portuaria determinará su relevancia en la red marítima internacional, y de ellos dependerá la facilidad o la dificultad de un país para conectarse con el mercado global.

*Especialista sénior y especialista principal de la División de Transporte del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID).

Publicado originalmente en semana.com

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